Developing Public Private Partnerships

Public Private Partnerships can contribute to economic recovery and the sustainable development of the European Union (EU). The combination of public and private capacities and money is essential in the context of the economic crisis. The Commission presents the obstacles to PPPs being set up and the means to encourage them.

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 19 November 2009 – Mobilising private and public investment for recovery and long term structural change: developing Public Private Partnerships [COM(2009) 615 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) are innovative financing solutions promoted by the European Union (EU). In particular, they can contribute to:

  • facilitating projects in the public interest, notably infrastructures and cross-border public services;
  • sharing financial risks and reducing the costs of infrastructure which are normally fully funded by the public sector;
  • supporting sustainable development, innovation, research and development through competition and commitments from private enterprise.
  • enlarging European companies’ market shares in government procurement in countries outside the EU.

PPPs within the EU

These partnerships must be compatible with the rules of the EU as regards:

  • the operation of the internal market;
  • the Stability and Growth Pact;
  • Community legislation on public procurement and concessions;
  • competition rules, insofar as PPPs carry out economic activities.

EU financing can be used to co-finance PPPs. National public and private stakeholders can benefit from:

  • structural funds associated to PPPs, and the JASPERS, JESSICA and JEREMIE initiatives;
  • European Investment Bank (EIB) funds and the European Investment Fund (EIF). The EIB has also established a European PPP Expertise Centre (EPEC) to assist in creating PPPs;
  • the financial instruments of the trans-European transport network (RTE-T network), which encourage the contribution of private financing, risk capital and the granting of bank loans;
  • the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Development and the Joint Technological Initiative (JTI).

The EU also recommends the use of instruments for innovation:

  • the Risk Sharing Finance Facility (RSFF), set up by the Commission and the EIB in order to facilitate access to loans. The European Economic Recovery Plan foresees an accelerated implementation of the RSFF;
  • the instruments of the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP), which support PPPs in the areas of research, technological development and innovation.

PPPs outside the EU

PPPs can be set up as part of enlargement strategy and external cooperation actions. The EU also contributes to the Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund, an international PPP for investors in developing countries.

Finally, the EU promotes improved transparency and operation of PPPs in its international trade relations.

Obstacles to the creation of PPPs

The economic crisis has limited access to financing due to:

  • the increase in the cost of credit;
  • a reduction in bank maturities to reduce the duration of loans;
  • a lack of financing at the outset for public procurement processes.

It is for this reason that the Commission has presented a temporary Community framework for State aid to support access to finance in this period of economic crisis.

Setting up PPPs often involves:

  • considerable financial resources;
  • expertise and specific training in the public sector;
  • complex financial arrangements;
  • long-term commitments from the authorities.

PPPs in the field of technological innovation are essential for EU competitiveness. The Commission is to build a specific framework to:

  • facilitate their creation and ensure that risks and responsibilities are shared between public and private stakeholders;
  • guarantee access to finance through grants, public procurement or investment.

Measures taken by the EU

The economic crisis has a negative impact on public finances and on projects requiring long-term investment. Thus in 2010, as part of the Economic Recovery Plan, the Commission plans five specific actions to foster the setting up of PPPs:

  • the creation of a group for dialogue and exchange between the stakeholders involved in a PPP;
  • an increase in available financial resources through existing European instruments and by developing specific instruments;
  • an assurance that public and private management bodies are to be treated equally with regard to European funding;
  • the promotion of innovation, in particular by allowing the EU to participate in private law bodies and directly invest in projects;
  • a proposal for a new legal instrument relating to public service concessions awarded to the private sector.

The Commission is also to evaluate a series of additional measures before the end of 2011. These concern:

  • extending the scope of European financial instruments;
  • completing the impact assessment concerning the initiative relating to the award of service concessions;
  • improving accounting practices;
  • disseminating specialised knowledge and know-how;
  • promoting information and communication technologies and innovation.

Rules applicable to Institutionalised Public-Private Partnerships (IPPP)

The Commission has published guidance on creating institutionalised public-private partnerships (IPPP). These are public-private entities usually created to provide public services. The rules applicable to the creation of IPPP have been clarified in order to enhance legal certainty.

Commission interpretative communication on the application of Community law on Public Procurement and Concessions to institutionalised PPP (IPPP) [2008/C 91/02 – Official Journal C 91 of 12.4.2008].

This communication details how Community provisions on public procurement and concessions in the case of institutionalised public-private partnerships (IPPP) * are to be applied. The aim is to enhance legal certainty and to assuage concerns regarding the participation of private partners in IPPP.

Creating an IPPP

An IPPP is generally set up through:

  • the creation of a new entity in which the capital is held jointly by the contracting entity and the private partner and which is assigned public procurement or concessions; or
  • the participation of a private entity in an existing company which has obtained public contracts or concessions in the past.

The contracting entity * must comply with the Community’s legal provisions on public procurement and concessions and in particular follow a fair and transparent procedure, either when selecting the private partner for the IPPP or when granting a public contract or a concession to the public-private entity.

A double tendering procedure (one for selecting the private partner to the IPPP and another one for awarding public contracts or concessions to the public-private entity) is not considered practical. However, one possible way of avoiding a double tendering procedure is by selecting a private partner for the IPPP by means of a transparent and competitive procedure, the subject of which is both the public contract and concession attributed to the IPPP and the partner’s operational contribution to the IPPP.

Applicable Regulation

There are no specific rules governing the creation of an IPPP in Community law. However, the principles of fair treatment and the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of nationality derived from Article 43 of the Treaty establishing the European Community (EC Treaty) on freedom of establishment and from Article 49 EC on the freedom to provide services apply to the fields of public procurement and concessions.

Rules applicable to the selection process of a private partner are different depending on whether or not the public procurement or the concession is covered by the so-called “traditional” Directive (2004/18/CE: on public works contracts, public supply contracts and public service contracts) and/or the Directive on “special sectors” (2004/17/CE on public procurement in the water, energy, transport and postal services sectors).

  • If the public-private entity’s task is to carry out a public contract fully covered by the Public Procurement Directives, the procedure for selecting the private partner is determined by these same Directives.
  • If it relates to a public procurement or concession partially covered by these Directives, the rules derived from the EC Treaty apply in addition to the relevant provisions of these Directives.
  • In the case of a public procurement or a concession not being covered by the Directives, the selection of the private partner must comply with the principles of the EC Treaty.

The contracting entity must publicise the selection and award criteria for identifying the private partner for the IPPP. The criteria used must comply with the principle of equal treatment. The Public Procurement Directives specify requirements related to the personal capacity of the private partner, such as the personal situation of the candidate, his economic and financial standing, his technical ability, etc. Such criteria may also be used in the context of concessions and public contracts not fully covered by the Public Procurement Directives.

The principles of equal treatment and non-discrimination imply an obligation of transparency which consists in ensuring for any potential tenderer a degree of advertising sufficient to enable the market to be opened up to competition. In the context of an IPPP, the contracting entity should include in the contract notice or the contract documents basic information on the following: the public contracts and/or concessions which are to be awarded, the statutes and articles of association, the shareholder agreement and all other elements governing the contractual relationship between the contracting entity and the public-private entity before being created.

Subsequent modifications

The principle of transparency also requires the disclosure in the tender documents of optional renewals or modifications of the public contract or concessions, as well as the disclosure of optional assignments of additional tasks. The information provided should be sufficiently detailed, in order to ensure fair and effective competition.

The IPPP must remain within the scope of its initial activity and cannot obtain any further public contracts or concessions without a procurement procedure. However, the IPPP must be able to adjust to changes in the economic, legal or technical environment. An adjustment is possible on the condition that it complies with the principles of equal treatment and transparency. Any changes to the essential terms of a contract, not provided for in the initial tender documents, require a new procurement procedure.


The public consultation undertaken at the time of the publication of the Green Paper on Public-Private Partnerships and Community law on public contracts and concessions showed the need for clarification on the Community’s legal provisions applicable to institutionalised public-private partnerships (IPPP). In effect, the perceived lack of legal certainty could undermine the success of such projects and dissuade public authorities and private entities from creating an IPPP.

Public-private partnerships: delivering innovation and growth in Europe

Through the Horizon 2020 programme, the European Commission aims to support EU-level partnerships as part of the Europe 2020 strategy’s target of investing 3 % of gross domestic product (GDP) in research and development (R & D). Overall, the European Commission, EU countries and industry plan to invest more than €22 billion over the next seven years in research and innovation.

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions:

Public-private partnerships in Horizon 2020:

a powerful tool to deliver on innovation and growth in Europe (COM(2013) 494 final,10.7.2013).

To encourage EU research and innovation, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) includes two articles which have been used as a legal basis for establishing public-private and public-public partnerships in research and innovation:

Article 187 TFEU covers public-private partnerships, typically involving the EU, industrial association(s) and other partners. These partnerships are managed by legal entities called joint undertakings which are responsible for implementing the research agenda in the area they cover.
Article 185 TFEU covers public-public partnerships, with participation of the EU in research and development programmes undertaken by several EU countries.

Public-private partnerships

In meeting the objectives of Horizon 2020 public private partnerships help to:

enable a long-term, strategic approach to research and innovation and reduce uncertainties by allowing for long-term commitments;
share common resources and critical mass thanks to their legal structure. This enables a scale of research effort that individual firms would not be able to achieve on their own. This is thanks to smart specialisation and the combining of Horizon 2020 and European structural and investment funding;
make research and innovation funding across the EU more efficient by sharing financial, human and infrastructure resources. This reduces the risk of fragmentation (i.e. where research is dispersed and uncoordinated), and leads to economies of scale and reduced costs for all partners involved;
better address complex challenges as they help develop interdisciplinary approaches and allow for a more efficient sharing of knowledge and expertise;
facilitate the creation of an internal market for innovative products and services, by advancing jointly on critical issues such as access to finance, standardisation and norm setting;
enable innovative technologies to get faster to the market, including by allowing companies to collaborate and share information, thereby accelerating the learning process;
provide the right framework for international companies to anchor their research and innovation investments in Europe and benefit from European strengths such as a well-trained workforce, diversity in approaches and sectorial creativity; and
enable the scale of research and innovation effort needed to address critical societal challenges and major EU policy objectives under the Europe 2020 strategy.

Some of the public-private partnerships under Horizon 2020 involve partnerships that were initially established under EU’s seventh framework programme (FP7) for Research and Development (R&D) or are new partnerships:

Bio-based Industries JTI JU, new under Horizon 2020,
Clean Sky 2 JTI JU, successor of the Clean Sky JTI JU,

ECSEL (Electronic Components and Systems for European Leadership – a merger of the former ARTEMIS embedded systems JTI JU and of the former ENIAC nanoelectronics JTI JU, expanded to also address smart systems),
Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 JTI JU, successor of the FCH JTI JU,
Innovative Medicines 2 JTI JU, successor of the IMI JTI JU.
Besides the abovementioned JTI JUs, another form of public-private partnership on the basis of Article 187 TFEU also operates under Horizon 2020:

the Single European Sky ATM Research Joint Undertaking (SESAR JU) established in FP7 will continue in Horizon 2020 (coordination of the technical pillar of the Single European Sky initiative which aims at modernising Air Traffic Management in Europe),
the Shift2Rail Joint Undertaking (S2R JU), new under Horizon 2020 (coordination and management of the Union research and innovation investments in the European rail sector).

Contractual Public-Private partnerships

Under Horizon 2020, these are based on a contractual arrangement between the Commission and industry partners (not under Art. 187 TFEU and different from the abovementioned institutionalised public private partnerships). These contractual public private partnerships were considered in the following areas:

Factories of the Future;
Energy-efficient Buildings;
Green Vehicles Initiative;
Sustainable Process Industry;
High Performance Computing;
Advanced 5G networks for the Future Internet.


Article 185 TFEU enables the EU to participate in research programmes undertaken jointly by several EU countries, including participation in the structures created for the execution of national programmes.

Some of the public-public partnerships under Horizon 2020 involve partnerships that were launched under previous Framework Programmes (FP6 or FP7) for R & D or are new partnerships:

the Active and Assisted Living Research and Development Programme,
the second European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP 2),
the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR),
the Eurostars 2 programme supporting research and development performing SMEs.


1291/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 establishing Horizon 2020 – the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (2014-2020) and repealing Decision No 1982/2006/EC (Official Journal L 347, 20.12.2013, pp. 104-173).

Model financial regulation for public–private partnership bodies

Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/887 on the model financial regulation for public-private partnership bodies referred to in Article 71 of Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2018/1046

It lays down the essential principles and rules that public–private partnership bodies (PPP bodies)* covered by Article 71 of the financial regulation (see summary) must respect when adopting their own specific financial arrangements.
The purpose of the delegated regulation is to ensure sound financial management of European Union (EU) funds given to these bodies.
Each PPP body adopts its own financial rules in line with the delegated regulation. PPP bodies may only depart from its rules, because of their specific needs, with the prior consent of the European Commission.

Key Points

The PPP body’s annual budget must forecast and authorise all revenue and expenditure. This covers:

members’ financial contributions to administrative and operational costs;
revenue earmarked for specific expenditure;
revenue the PPP body generates;
expenditure, including on administration.

The PPP body must respect the following budgetary principles.

Unity and budgetary accuracy

All revenue and expenditure must be booked to a budget line.
No expenditure can be greater than the amount authorised in the budget.


The budget’s financial year runs from 1 January to 31 December.
Commitment appropriations* cover the total costs legally entered into during the financial year.
Payment appropriations* cover expenditure to honour the legal commitments made in the current or preceding financial years.

Revenue and payment appropriations must be in balance.
The PPP may not raise loans within its budget.

Unit of account
The budget is drawn up and implemented in euro.
The accounting officer, for cash-flow purposes, may operate in other currencies.

Total revenue must cover total payments.
Revenue that has been earmarked for a particular purpose, such as income from foundations, subsidies, gifts and bequests, must be used for that specific purpose.

Appropriations are earmarked for specific purposes by title and chapter.
The director may transfer appropriations from one budget line and chapter to another, subject to certain conditions.

Sound financial management and performance

Payments must respect the principles of economy, efficiency and effectiveness.
Payments focus on performance, based on objectives and indicators to measure progress made.

Internal control of budget implementation
Applies at all management levels.
Aims to achieve reasonable assurance of:
effectiveness, efficiency and economy of operations;
reliability of reporting;
safeguarding of assets and information;
prevention, detection, correction and follow-up of fraud and irregularities;
adequate management of risks of underlying transactions.

The PPP body must publish its budget, recipients of payments and other relevant information on its website, in an easily accessible, transparent and comprehensive way.
As regards conflicts of interest, the PPP body publishes the declaration of interest of the governing board members on its website every year.

Financial planning requires:

the PPP body to send the Commission and other members a detailed estimate of the following year’s revenue and expenditure and draft annual work programme no later than 31 January;
the PPP body’s governing board to adopt the PPP body’s budget and staff establishment plan.

The regulation makes the following statements.

The duties of the authorising officer and the accounting officer are segregated and mutually exclusive.
The director performs the authorising officer’s duties. These include:
respecting the PPP body’s financial rules and the principle of sound financial management;
applying checks before and possibly after payments are made;
reporting annually to the governing board by submitting a consolidated annual activity report;
acting, when necessary, to protect the EU’s financial interests.
The governing board appoints an accounting officer responsible for:
properly implementing payments, collecting revenue and recovering amounts due;
keeping, preparing and presenting the accounts;
implementing the accounting rules and the chart of accounts;
laying down and validating the accounting systems;
managing the treasury.

Authorising and accounting officers, members of the governing board and others involved in implementing and managing the budget must avoid any conflicts of interest.
PPP bodies must have an internal audit function. The Commission’s internal auditor carries out this role by:

advising on risks, the quality of management and control systems and possible improvements;
enjoying complete independence in their work.
Revenue and expenditure operations require:

revenue: drawing up estimates of amounts receivable, establishing entitlements to be recovered and recovering undue amounts;
expenditure: every item being committed, validated, authorised and paid.
The PPP body’s financial contributions must help achieve an EU policy objective with specific results. They can range from reimbursement of eligible costs to flat-rate financing.

The PPP body must inform the Commission of cases of presumed fraud or other financial irregularities without delay.

Accounting rules require the PPP body to:

set up an accounting system providing accurate, complete and reliable information in a timely manner;
follow standard procedures when providing supporting documents, financial statements, budget implementation reports, provisional and final accounts and an annual report on budgetary and financial management.
An independent external auditor verifies the PPP body’s annual accounts, and the European Parliament is responsible for approving how the budget was implemented (the ‘discharge procedure’).

Commission staff and the Court of Auditors have access to the PPP body’s sites and premises to carry out audits, and the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF) may conduct investigations, on-the-spot checks and inspections.

Application & Background

It has applied since 30 May 2019, apart from the rules on the consolidated activity report (Article 23) and annual work programme (Article 33(4)) which have applied since 1 January 2021.

For more information, see:

Financial regulation applicable to the general budget of the Union — publication (European Commission)
Guidance on the avoidance and management of conflicts of interest under the financial regulation — notice (European Commission).
Public–private partnership bodies. Bodies with legal personality set up by a basic act and entrusted with the implementation of a public–private partnership on research and innovation activities and other programmes of the EU, as referred to in Article 71 of the financial regulation. These bodies harness both the public and private sectors to provide goods and services normally supplied by the former. They place various responsibilities and risks on the private partner, while easing stringent budgetary constraints on public expenditure.
They can be structured in different ways to achieve a wide range of objectives in sectors such as transport or health.

Commitment appropriations. Pledges to pay, provided certain conditions are fulfilled.
Payment appropriations. Expenditure from commitments in the current, or preceding, financial years.


Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/887 of 13 March 2019 on the model financial regulation for public–private partnership bodies referred to in Article 71 of Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2018/1046 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 142, 29.5.2019, pp. 16–42).

Commission Notice — Guidance on the avoidance and management of conflicts of interest under the Financial Regulation (OJ C 121, 9.4.2021, pp. 1–43).

Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2018/1046 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 July 2018 on the financial rules applicable to the general budget of the Union, amending Regulations (EU) No 1296/2013, (EU) No 1301/2013, (EU) No 1303/2013, (EU) No 1304/2013, (EU) No 1309/2013, (EU) No 1316/2013, (EU) No 223/2014, (EU) No 283/2014, and Decision No 541/2014/EU and repealing Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 966/2012 (OJ L 193, 30.7.2018, pp. 1–222).

Public–private partnerships under Horizon Europe

Regulation (EU) 2021/2085 establishing the joint undertakings under Horizon Europe

The regulation:

sets up nine joint undertakings as public–private partnerships under the Horizon Europe programme, as provided for in Article 187 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union;
determines their objectives and tasks, membership, organisation and other operating rules.

General objectives

The nine joint undertakings are collectively designed to:

strengthen and integrate scientific, innovative and technological capacities and collaboration;
support knowledge and skills;
deliver on global challenges;
enhance competitiveness, resilience and sustainability;
help achieve a stronger European research area;
secure sustainability-driven global leadership and resilience in important technologies and industries in line with industrial and small and medium-sized enterprise strategies, the European Green Deal, the

European recovery plan and other policies;
improve the uptake of innovative solutions, addressing climate, environmental, health and other global challenges;
contribute to European Union (EU) strategic priorities and economic growth;
help achieve the United Nations sustainable development goals and climate neutrality by 2050, in line with the Paris Agreement.

The following joint undertakings are set up as EU bodies for a period ending on 31 December 2031, financed under the 2021–2027 multiannual financial framework.

Circular Bio-based Europe, designed to:

speed up the development of innovative bio-based solutions;
accelerate market deployment of existing solutions;
ensure that bio-based industrial systems perform at a high level.
Clean Aviation, designed to :

help reduce the carbon footprint of aviation by accelerating the development of climate-neutral aviation technologies;
ensure that aeronautics research and innovation (R & I) contributes to EU aviation industry competitiveness;
advance EU aviation R & I capacity.

Clean Hydrogen, designed to:

help with EU ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the 2020 hydrogen strategy for a climate-neutral Europe;
strengthen the EU clean hydrogen value chain’s competitiveness, bringing innovative clean solutions to the market more rapidly;
stimulate R & I on clean hydrogen.

Europe’s Rail, designed to:

help achieve the single European railway area;
ensure fast transition to a more attractive, user-friendly, competitive, affordable, easy-to-maintain, efficient, integrated and sustainable rail system;
support a strong and globally competitive European rail industry.

Global Health European and developing countries clinical trials partnership 3, designed to:

help reduce the socioeconomic burden of infectious diseases in sub-Saharan Africa by promoting new or improved health technologies;
strengthen preparedness and response to infectious diseases to contribute to health security in sub-Saharan Africa and globally.

Innovative Health Initiative, designed to:

create a health R & I ecosystem, helping translate scientific knowledge into innovations;
develop safe, cost-effective innovations to respond to strategic unmet public health needs;
drive innovation for a competitive and effective European health industry, industrial strategy for Europe and pharmaceutical strategy for Europe.

Key Digital Technologies, designed to:

reinforce autonomy in electronic components and systems to support future needs of vertical industries and the economy;
establish scientific excellence and innovation leadership in emerging components and systems technologies, particularly involving small and medium-sized enterprises;
ensure Europe’s societal and environmental challenges are addressed by components and systems technologies.

Single European Sky ATM Research 3, designed to:

strengthen and integrate EU R & I capacity in air traffic management, making it more resilient and scalable;
strengthen, through innovation, the competitiveness of manned and unmanned air transport;
develop and speed up the market uptake of innovative solutions to establish the single European sky as the world’s most efficient and environmentally friendly airspace.

Smart Networks and Services, designed to:

foster Europe’s technological leadership in future smart networks and services;
achieve better strategic alignment with the telecoms industry, along with the internet of things, the cloud, and components and devices;
advance European technological and scientific leadership to shape and master 6G systems by 2030;
strengthen digital infrastructure deployment and the uptake of digital solutions in the European markets;
support the alignment of future smart networks and services with policy objectives including the European Green Deal, security, ethics and privacy, together with a human-centric and sustainable internet.

Monitoring and evaluation

The joint undertakings are continuously monitored to ensure the greatest impact, their scientific excellence and the most effective and efficient use of resources. Results will be fed back to the Horizon Europe project.


Council Regulation (EU) 2021/2085 of 19 November 2021 establishing the Joint Undertakings under Horizon Europe and repealing Regulations (EC) No 219/2007, (EU) No 557/2014, (EU) No 558/2014, (EU) No 559/2014, (EU) No 560/2014, (EU) No 561/2014 and (EU) No 642/2014 (OJ L 427, 30.11.2021, pp. 17–119).

It has applied since 30 November 2021.

Regulation (EU) 2021/695 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 April 2021 establishing Horizon Europe – the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, laying down its rules for participation and dissemination, and repealing Regulations (EU) No 1290/2013 and (EU) No 1291/2013 (OJ L 170, 12.5.2021, pp. 1–68).

Regulation (EU) 2020/852 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2020 on the establishment of a framework to facilitate sustainable investment, and amending Regulation (EU) 2019/2088 (OJ L 198, 22.6.2020, pp. 13–43).

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – The European Green Deal (COM(2019) 640 final, 11.12.2019).

Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2018/1046 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 July 2018 on the financial rules applicable to the general budget of the Union, amending Regulations (EU) No 1296/2013, (EU) No 1301/2013, (EU) No 1303/2013, (EU) No 1304/2013, (EU) No 1309/2013, (EU) No 1316/2013, (EU) No 223/2014, (EU) No 283/2014, and Decision No 541/2014/EU and repealing Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 966/2012 (OJ L 193, 30.7.2018, pp. 1–222).

Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union – Part Three – Union policies and internal actions – Title XIX – Research and technological development and space – Article 187 (ex Article 171 TEC) (OJ C 202, 7.6.2016, p. 131).


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