Type-approval and market surveillance requirements
for motorbikes/mopeds and quads in the EU
Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 – the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadricycles
It aims to upgrade the EU’s functional safety and environmental requirements for L-category vehicles as a prerequisite for vehicle registration.
It also applies to enduro motorcycles, trial motorcycles and heavy all-terrain quads that may be used both on- and off-road.
Approval and market surveillance authorities
EU countries must designate
approval authorities to certify that a given type of vehicle complies with the various administrative and technical requirements that are laid down in the law;
market surveillance authorities to ensure that vehicles, systems, components or separate technical units on the market comply with the law and do not endanger health, safety or any other aspect of public interest protection.
Type-approval requirements address the (vehicle) manufacturers, approval authorities and technical services (e.g. inspection bodies) involved. Once a vehicle complies with a comprehensive set of requirements, a vehicle type may be sold on the EU market.
The manufacturer must deliver a conformity certificate with each vehicle; this allows the owner to register the vehicle.
Functional safety requirements
The regulation lays down safety requirements such as:
new motorcycles of more than 125 cm3 must be equipped with an anti-lock braking system;
mandatory fitting of an anti-lock brake system, a combined brake system or both on a 2-wheeled motorcycle under 125 cm3 is left to the manufacturer’s discretion;
from July 2014, for visibility purposes, all new types of L-category vehicles must be fitted with a mechanism that automatically turns on the lights; as of 1 January 2016, all existing types of these vehicles must also comply;
the mandatory fitting of a differential (which allows wheels on the same axle to turn at different rates) on quads and other types of 3- and 4-wheeled L-category vehicles to ensure they can turn corners safely.
Environmental performance requirements
To get type approval, an L-category vehicle has to comply with 8 different test types, such as for evaporative emissions (fuel vapours), pollution control devices, energy efficiency and sound.
The regulation sets environmental requirements for 2 stages of emission reductions. The first stage (Euro 4) is mandatory for new types of vehicles as of 1 January 2016. A second step (Euro 5) will apply as of 2020, allowing manufacturers and suppliers to plan for the medium term. The feasibility of the Euro 5 step will need to be confirmed with a study in 2016 of its potential environmental effects.
Obligations on manufacturers, their representatives, importers and distributors
The regulation details the obligations of those involved in the supply chain, as indicated below.
Where a vehicle presents a serious risk for users or the environment, the manufacturer or other parties in the supply chain must take effective protective measures, including a recall of vehicles.
Manufacturers must provide unrestricted access to on-board diagnostics using a standardised connector and to vehicle repair and maintenance information through websites to authorised dealers and repairers, as well as to independent operators. This does not apply to ‘small-series’ vehicles.
Application & Background
It applies from 1 January 2016.
However, as of 11 September 2014, a manufacturer may voluntarily request a vehicle type approval on the basis of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013. Framework Directive 2002/24/EC will be repealed from 1 January 2016. Thereafter, Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and its delegated and implementing acts will become mandatory.
To reduce pollution from transport and to increase the functional safety of new L-category vehicles, the EU adopted a new law in 2013 to replace Directive 2002/24/EC as of 1 January 2016. L-category vehicles is the name of a family of light powered vehicles such as powered cycles, 2- and 3-wheeled mopeds, motorcycles (with and without side cars), tricycles and quadricycles.
For more information, see the European Commission’s ‘Automotive industry’ website.
Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2013 on the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadricycles (OJ L 60, 2.3.2013, pp. 52–128)
Successive amendments to Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 have been incorporated in the original text. This consolidated version is of documentary value only.
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 901/2014 of 18 July 2014 implementing Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the administrative requirements for the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadricycles (OJ L 249, 22.8.2014, pp. 1–202)
Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 3/2014 of 24 October 2013 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to vehicle functional safety requirements for the approval of two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadricycles (OJ L 7, 10.1.2014, pp. 1–12). See consolidated version.
Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 44/2014 of 21 November 2013 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the vehicle construction and general requirements for the approval of two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadricycles (OJ L 25, 28.1.2014, pp. 1–102)
Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 134/2014 of 16 December 2013 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to environmental and propulsion unit performance requirements and amending Annex V thereof (OJ L 53, 21.2.2014, pp. 1–10)