Controls on firearms purchases and possession
Directive 91/477/EEC — the control of the acquisition and possession of weapons
The ‘Firearms Directive’ sets out certain minimum conditions for the circulation of civil firearms* within the EU.
The directive establishes 4 categories of firearms by order of their level of danger, defined in Annex I to the directive.
The directive does not apply to commercial transfers of weapons and ammunition of war nor to the acquisition or possession of weapons and ammunition* by:
the armed forces, the police or the public authorities
collectors and bodies concerned with the cultural and historical aspects of weapons and recognised as such by the EU countries in which they are established.
The directive does not affect the application of national provisions concerning the carrying of weapons, hunting or target shooting.
A European firearms pass is issued by the authorities of an EU country to any person lawfully taking possession of and using a firearm. The pass must always be in the possession of the person using the firearm or firearms listed on it.
Identification and tracing
Each firearm and elementary package of ammunition must be marked upon manufacturing.
EU countries are required to maintain a computerised data-filing system to register these firearms. Only authorised authorities can access the register.
EU countries may set up a system that will regulate the activities of brokers*. Dealers* must keep a register for firearms they receive or dispose of throughout their period of activity.
Sale, acquisition and possession
EU countries are responsible for checking the sale, acquisition and possession of these weapons; however, any rules put in place must fall within the scope of the rules of this directive.
The arrangements for the acquisition and possession of ammunition shall be the same as those for the possession of the firearm for which they are intended.
The acquisition and possession of a firearm is permitted when a person:
has a good cause for the acquisition or possession (e.g. is a legitimate collector or involved with a shooting practice club);
is at least 18 years old, although an exception to this rule exists with regard to firearms for hunting and target shooting (e.g. in some cases, guns can be used for hunting and target practice by those less than 18 years old if under the guidance of a parent/adult with a firearms licence or at an approved training centre);
does not present a danger to themselves or the public.
A person that meets the requirements for the acquisition and possession of any firearm may be given a multiannual licence. In such cases, certain formalities must be observed:
any movements of the firearm must be communicated to the competent authorities,
regular checks must be carried out to evaluate whether the person continues to meet the requirements, and
the maximum time limits specified by national law must be respected.
To control the movement of firearms within the EU, the directive lays down procedures for the:
definitive transfers of weapons from one EU country to another;
temporary transfers of weapons (journeys) through 2 or more EU countries.
These formalities apply to all firearms, excluding weapons of war.
Role of EU countries
A contact group to make it easier to share information between EU countries was established in 2009.
The directive does not affect the right of EU countries to take measures to prevent illegal trade in weapons.
Review and proposals
The European Commission presented a report on the application of this directive in November 2015 as part of a package of measures on firearms. The package included a proposal for a revision of the Firearms Directive.
* Firearm: any portable barrelled weapon that expels, is designed to expel or may be converted to expel a shot, bullet or projectile by the action of a combustible propellant.
* Ammunition: the complete round or the components of thereof, including cartridge cases, primers, propellant powder, bullets or projectiles, that are used in a firearm.
* Broker: any natural or legal person, other than a dealer, whose trade or business consists wholly or partly in the buying, selling or arranging the transfer of weapons.
* Dealer: any natural or legal person whose trade or business consists wholly or partly in the manufacture, trade, exchange, hiring out, repair or conversion of firearms, parts and ammunition.
Council Directive 91/477/EEC of 18 June 1991 on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons (OJ L 256, 13.9.1991, pp. 51-58)
Successive amendments to Directive 91/477/EEC have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated version is of documentary value only.
Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council: Evaluation of Council Directive 91/477/EC of 18 June 1991, as amended by Directive 2008/51/EC of 21 May 2008, on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons (COM(2015) 751 final of 18.11.2015)
Small arms and light weapons: combating their accumulation
EU strategy to combat illicit accumulation and trafficking of small arms and ammunition
It provides an action plan to combat the threat associated with the illegal accumulation and trafficking of small arms and light weapons (SALW)* and their ammunition, taking advantage of the wide range of mechanisms available to the EU.
The SALW Strategy pulls together EU countries’ civilian and military capabilities, Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) instruments, and police, customs and judiciary action within the EU to advance its objectives.
Effective multilateralism is needed in order to develop international, regional and national mechanisms.
At the international level, priority is given to
implementing the United Nations’ programme of action on SALW;
tracing SALW through a global reporting mechanism (iTrace II); and
ratifying the Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms.
The EU will also seek to persuade non-EU countries that are SALW exporters to comply with the above.
At the regional level, the EU provides financial support to concrete programmes aimed at tackling security threats related to illegal SALW in Libya, South Eastern Europe and the Organisation of Security and Cooperation in Europe area.
The strategy is also advanced by the Instrument contributing to Stability and Peace, which helps prevent and respond to crises, and to create a safe and stable environment around the world.
The Council of the EU continuously monitors the implementation of the EU SALW Strategy. Every 6 months, the European External Action Service presents a progress report to the Council for its endorsement.
The consequences of the excessive accumulation and uncontrolled spread of SALW are central to 4 of the 5 challenges (terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, regional conflicts, state failure and organised crime) identified in the European Security Strategy.
For more information, see:
‘The fight against excessive accumulation and illicit trafficking of SALW and their ammunition’ on the website of the European External Action Service.
EU Strategy to combat illicit accumulation and trafficking of SALW and their ammunition, Council of the European Union, Brussels, 13 January 2006
Regulation (EU) No 230/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2014 establishing an instrument contributing to stability and peace (OJ L 77, 15.3.2014, pp. 1-10)
Council Decision (CFSP) 2015/1908 of 22 October 2015 in support of a global reporting mechanism on illicit small arms and light weapons and other illicit conventional weapons and ammunition to reduce the risk of their illicit trade (‘iTrace II’) (OJ L 278, 23.10.2015, pp. 15-25)
Firearms — combating illicit manufacture and trafficking
Regulation (EU) No 258/2012: implementing the United Nations’ Protocol against the illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms
It lays down rules on exporting, importing and transporting firearms, their parts and components, and ammunition.
It therefore implements Article 10 (which deals with imports, exports and transit of firearms) of the United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition.
Annex I to this regulation contains a list of the firearms, their parts and ammunition that require export authorisation. The European Commission has the power to amend this list.
The relevant authority of the EU country where a prospective exporter is based may grant export authorisation upon receiving an export authorisation form from that exporter.
When exporting firearms, their parts and ammunition outside the EU, an exporter must provide the relevant authority in its own EU country with authorisation from the non-EU country receiving the shipment, and from any non-EU countries through which the shipment will pass. The authority must then process the export authorisation application within 60 days.
For traceability purposes, export and import authorisations and their accompanying documentation must contain information including, for example:
the place and date of issue,
the expiry date,
both the country of export and import,
the final recipient, and
a description of and quantity of the firearms, their parts and ammunition.
Simplified procedures exist for firearms, their parts and ammunition used for hunting and sports shooting.
When deciding whether to grant an export authorisation, EU countries must take into account considerations such as:
international treaties and
national foreign and security policy.
EU countries also need to take account of considerations covered by Council Common Position 2008/994/CFSP which defines EU rules on the control of exports of military technology and equipment. These include aspects such as:
risk that the intended recipient would use the military technology or equipment to be exported aggressively against another country or to assert by force a territorial claim, or
risk that the military technology or equipment would be diverted within the buyer country or re-exported under undesirable conditions.
EU countries must refuse to grant export authorisation if the applicant has a criminal record. In addition, they must annul, suspend, modify or revoke the authorisation if the conditions are no longer met.
The regulation does not apply to antique or deactivated firearms, or to firearms intended for military or police use.
It has applied since 30 September 2013.
The UN’s Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition is the only legally binding instrument on small arms at global level. It establishes a set of rules for countries to control and regulate illicit firearms and arms trafficking, prevent their diversion into crime, and facilitate the investigation and prosecution of related offences without hampering legitimate trade.
The Protocol supplements the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime.
For more information, see ‘Trafficking in firearms’ on the European Commission’s website
Regulation (EU) No 258/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2012 implementing Article 10 of the United Nations’ Protocol against the illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms, their parts and components and ammunition, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime (UN Firearms Protocol), and establishing export authorisation, and import and transit measures for firearms, their parts and components and ammunition (OJ L 94, 30.3.2012, pp. 1–15)
Council Common Position 2008/944/CFSP of 8 December 2008 defining common rules governing control of exports of military technology and equipment (OJ L 335, 13.12.2008, p. 99–103)
Illicit weapons and ammunition – global reporting mechanism
Council Decision (CFSP) 2015/1908 – global reporting mechanism on illicit small arms and light weapons (‘iTrace II’)
It renews EU funding for iTrace, a user-friendly global information management system on diverted or trafficked small arms and light weapons* (SALW) and ammunition.
—The iTrace project is to be implemented by the non-governmental organisation Conflict Armament Research (CAR) under the responsibility of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR).
—The High Representative reports on the implementation process to the Council of the EU, while the European Commission reports on the financial aspects.
—The project has been allocated €2.53 million from the EU budget. CAR and the German Federal Foreign Office will cover additional costs.
The project shall support the following objectives:
—To maintain and further enhance iTrace so as to provide policymakers, arms control experts and arms export control authorities with relevant information to develop effective, evidence-based strategies and projects against the spread of illicit SALW;
—To conduct in-field research into SALW, upload all evidence into iTrace, and send formal requests to national governments to trace SALW movements;
—To centralise existing policy-relevant documentation on SALW transfers;
—To increase awareness on the project’s findings and promote the purpose and functions of iTrace to policymakers, arms control experts and arms export control authorities;
—To provide key policy issue reports about specific areas deserving international attention drawn up from data generated by field investigations and presented on the iTrace system.
It entered into force on 22 October 2015.
SALWs contribute to a worsening of terrorism and organised crime and are a major factor in triggering and spreading conflicts, as well as in the collapse of governments. Monitoring the movements of illicit SALW is integral for solving these problems.
The EU first provided funding for iTrace in 2013, with Council Decision 2013/698/CFSP. This decision supports the EU strategy to combat illicit accumulation and trafficking of SALWs and their ammunition.
Small arms and light weapons (SALW): these refer to any man-portable lethal weapon. Small arms include handguns, shotguns, assault rifles and light machineguns. Light weapons include heavy machineguns, grenade launchers, and anti-tank guns.
Council Decision (CFSP) 2015/1908 of 22 October 2015 in support of a global reporting mechanism on illicit small arms and light weapons and other illicit conventional weapons and ammunition to reduce the risk of their illicit trade (‘iTrace II’) (OJ L 278, 23.10.2015, pp. 15–25)
Council Decision 2013/698/CFSP of 25 November 2013 in support of a global reporting mechanism on illicit small arms and light weapons and other illicit conventional weapons and ammunition to reduce the risk of their illicit trade (OJ L 320, 30.11.2013, pp. 34–42)
Marketing and use of explosive precursors (from 31 January 2021)
Regulation (EU) 2019/1148 on the marketing and use of explosives precursors
It establishes EU-wide rules for the making available*, introduction, possession and use of substances* and mixtures* that could be misused to make homemade explosives.
It limits the availability of those substances or mixtures to the general public, and requires any suspicious transactions involving the substances to be reported to the appropriate authorities.
The regulation further strengthens the system to prevent the illicit manufacture of explosives, as a response to the evolving threat that terrorism and other serious criminal activities pose to public security.
identifies 2 distinct categories of explosives precursors*:
restricted explosives precursors, such as nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and ammonium nitrate, set out in Annex I. These are not to be made available to, introduced, possessed or used by members of the general public unless their concentration is below specific limits;
regulated explosives precursors, such as acetone, sodium nitrate and magnesium powders, listed in Annex II;
requires any suspicious transactions, significant disappearances and thefts in either category to be reported to the relevant authorities (the national contact points) in EU countries within 24 hours.
may issue licences for certain restricted explosives precursors to members of the general public who have a legitimate interest in obtaining restricted explosives precursors;
should establish one or more national contact points operating 24/7 to receive reports of suspicious transactions, significant disappearances and thefts;
provide adequate resources for training law enforcement, customs authorities and emergency services (‘first responders’) to recognise regulated explosives precursors and react to any suspicious activity;
ensure authorities are in place to inspect and control application of the legislation;
introduce effective, proportionate and dissuasive penalties for any violations of the regulation;
may restrict or prohibit the making available, introduction, possession and use of a substance they consider could be used to make homemade explosives, even if it does not feature in the legislation (in which case the European Commission examines the provisional measure, and may require the country to revoke or change the provisional measure);
provide the Commission by 2 February 2022, and subsequently, annually, information on:
reported suspicious transactions, significant disappearances and thefts;
licence applications received, issued and the most common reasons for their refusal;
inspections carried out and economic operators covered.
National authorities, when considering whether to issue a licence:
should take account of the:
need for the explosive and legitimacy of its intended use;
availability of alternatives with lower concentrations;
applicant’s background, including information on any previous criminal convictions;
security of the storage arrangements to be used;
refuse to issue a licence if they have reasonable grounds to doubt the legitimacy of the intended use;
may limit the validity of a licence below the maximum 3 years, and suspend or revoke it if the original conditions are no longer respected;
may charge applicants a processing fee.
Economic operators must:
inform an economic operator to whom they provide regulated explosives precursors that the explosives precursor is subject to a restriction or to reporting obligations;
when providing regulated explosives precursors to professional users or members of the general public, ensure that its personnel are aware of which products contain regulated explosives precursors, and are instructed on the obligations of the regulation;
check, each time they supply restricted explosives precursors to a member of the public, proof of the individual’s identity and licence;
check, each time they supply restricted explosives precursors to a professional user or another economic operator, information on the prospective customer and the intended use of the precursors (Annex IV provides a template for the customer statement);
keep information on purchases for 18 months;
may refuse to make precursors available if they believe the transaction is suspicious;
report significant disappearances and thefts within 24 hours to the national contact point.
Economic operators and online marketplaces:
report suspicious transactions, especially if the prospective purchaser of regulated explosives precursors:
appears unclear or unfamiliar about their intended use;
wishes to buy them in quantities, combinations or concentrations unlikely for normal use;
is unwilling to provide proof of identity, place of residence or, where appropriate, status as professional user or economic operator;
insists on using unusual forms of payment, including large cash sums;
have in place appropriate, reasonable and proportionate procedures to detect suspicious transactions;
may refuse suspicious transactions and must report these within 24 hours to the national contact point.
The European Commission:
provides regular guidelines in all official EU languages to assist all actors concerned, and to facilitate cooperation between economic operators;
may adopt delegated acts to modify the limit values in Annex I, and to add substances to Annex II of the legislation;
reports, by 2 February 2026, to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee on the application of the regulation, through an evaluation.
The legislation does not apply to certain types of pyrotechnic* articles and equipment — notably those used by the armed forces, law enforcement services, fire services, in farming, placed on board ships or in the aerospace industry — percussion caps for toys or medicinal products on the basis of a medical prescription.
The regulation amends Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals and also repeals Regulation (EU) No 98/2013 (see summary) from 1 February 2021, although:
licences issued under Regulation (EU) No 98/2013 are valid until they expire or until 2 February 2022, whichever is the sooner;
members of the general public with restricted explosives precursors legally acquired before 1 February 2021 are allowed to possess, introduce or use them until 2 February 2022.
FROM WHEN DOES THE REGULATION APPLY?
It applies from 1 February 2021.
For more information, see:
Security Union: Commission welcomes political agreement on new rules for explosive precursors — press release (European Commission).
Make available: to supply, whether for payment or free of charge.
Substance: a chemical element and its compounds in a natural or manufactured state.
Mixture: a solution composed of two or more substances.
Explosive precursors: chemical substances that could be used to make explosives illegally.
Economic operator: any natural or legal person, public entity or group supplying the precursors either on or offline.
Pyrotechnic: self-contained and self-sustained chemical reactions to make heat, light, gas, smoke and sound.
Regulation (EU) 2019/1148 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on the marketing and use of explosives precursors, amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 98/2013 (OJ L 186, 11.7.2019, pp. 1-20)
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council and the Council delivering on the European Agenda on Security to fight against terrorism and pave the way towards an effective and genuine Security Union (COM(2016) 230 final, 20.4.2016)
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions — The European Agenda on Security (COM(2015) 185 final, 28.4.2015)
Regulation (EU) No 98/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2013 on the marketing and use of explosives precursors (OJ L 39, 9.2.2013, pp. 1-11)
Successive amendments to Regulation (EU) No 98/2013 have been incorporated into the original text. This consolidated version is of documentary value only.
Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency, amending Directive 1999/45/EC and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 as well as Council Directive 76/769/EEC and Commission Directives 91/155/EEC, 93/67/EEC, 93/105/EC and 2000/21/EC (OJ L 396, 30.12.2006, p. 1-849). Text republished in corrigendum (OJ L 136, 29.5.2007, pp. 3-280)
Marketing and use of explosives precursors
Regulation (EU) No 98/2013 on the marketing and use of explosives precursors
This EU regulation establishes harmonised rules concerning the making available, introduction, possession and use of explosives precursors — substances or mixtures that could be misused for the illicit manufacture of explosives. This aims to limit their availability to the general public, and to ensure that suspicious transactions, significant disappearances and thefts, throughout the supply chain, are reported appropriately.
Previous measures did not cover the entire EU or take account of the security risks associated with these chemicals.
This regulation puts into force a common framework to harmonise EU countries’ laws regarding access to certain explosives precursors and to ensure an enhanced level of public security across the EU.
The scope of the regulation is limited to two short lists of substances (Annexes I and II) that are of the greatest concern.
Annex I lists the restricted explosives precursors subject to the ban. The general public is prohibited from acquiring, introducing, possessing or using these substances in concentrations over those stipulated in the annex.
In addition, the regulation imposes a duty on economic operators to report any suspicious transactions, as well as significant disappearances and thefts, involving substances or mixtures listed in both Annexes I and II. Suspicious transactions have to be reported to the national contact points designated by Member State authorities.
Licensing or registration regime
Individual EU countries have an option to maintain or establish a licensing regime or a registration regime:
a licensing regime permits them to issue licences for members of the general public with a legitimate need to acquire, introduce, possess or use restricted explosives precursors; and
a registration regime requires sellers of 3 of the restricted explosives precursors available to the general public to maintain a register of each transaction in accordance with specific arrangements.
Regulation (EU) No 98/2013 is repealed by Regulation (EU) 2019/1148 (see summary) as of 31 January 2021. It has applied since 2 September 2014.
Regulation (EU) No 98/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2013 on the marketing and use of explosives precursors (OJ L 39, 9.2.2013, pp. 1-11)
Successive amendments to Regulation (EU) No 98/2013 have been incorporated in the original text. This consolidated version is of documentary value only.
Guidelines by the European Commission and the Standing Committee on Precursors relating to Regulation (EU) No 98/2013.
EU restrictive measures against the proliferation and use of chemical weapons
Decision (CFSP) 2018/1544 — restrictive measures against the proliferation and use of chemical weapons
Regulation (EU) 2018/1542 — restrictive measures against the proliferation and use of chemical weapons
Together, the decision (adopted in the context of the EU’s common foreign and security policy) and the regulation (adopted on the basis of Article 215 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)) introduce a new ‘thematic’ EU sanctions regime, to counter the threat posed by the use and proliferation of chemical weapons*.
The decision obliges EU countries to impose an EU-wide travel ban and provides for an asset freeze targeting individuals, entities or bodies involved in the development and use of chemical weapons.
The regulation implements those measures falling under the TFEU, in particular the asset freeze.
These measures contribute to the EU’s efforts to tackle the proliferation and use of chemical weapons and its efforts to support the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and its Technical Secretariat.
Decision (CFSP) 2018/1544
The decision requires EU countries to prevent entry to or transit through their territory of target persons and entities who are directly responsible for the development and use of chemical weapons, as well as those who provide financial, technical or material support, and those who assist, encourage or are associated with them.
Some exceptions are permitted including, for example:
an EU country is not obliged to refuse its own nationals entry to its territory;
an EU country which is bound by an obligation of international law, such as being a host of an international intergovernmental organisation;
an EU country that is host country of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe.
EU countries must freeze any funds and economic resources* belonging to, held or controlled by target persons or entities.
Exceptionally, they may authorise the release of some of these funds if, for example, they are necessary:
for the basic needs of the target individual or entity;
to pay for legal services;
to pay fees or service charges for the routine holding or maintenance of the frozen funds or economic resources;
to satisfy a court or arbitral decision that predates the asset freeze.
EU countries must notify the other EU countries and the European Commission in these cases.
The Council is responsible for drawing up and amending the list of target individuals and entities in the annex to the decision. The Council acts by unanimity based on a proposal either from an EU country or from the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.
The Council then communicates its decision to the targeted individual(s) or entity(ies) either directly (if their address is known) or indirectly through the publication of a notice.
Regulation (EU) 2018/1542
complements the decision and sets out a series of definitions;
requires that all funds and economic resources belonging to, held or controlled by any target individual or body identified by the Council and listed in Annex I be frozen;
sets out the exceptional instances where certain frozen funds may be released and the conditions to be met — see above in regard to Decision (CFSP) 2018/1544.
Financial or credit institutions that receive funds transferred by third parties to the account of a listed individual or body may credit the frozen accounts, but any additions to such accounts will also be frozen. The institution must inform the relevant competent authority about any such transaction without delay.
The freezing of funds and economic resources or the refusal to make funds or economic resources available, carried out in good faith on the basis that such action is in line with this regulation, must not give rise to liability of any kind on the part of the individual or body implementing it, or its directors or employees, unless it is proved that the funds and economic resources were frozen or withheld as a result of negligence.
Any knowing or intentional involvement in activities to circumvent the measures (travel ban and/or asset freeze) is prohibited.
The regulation applies:
within the EU territory, including its airspace;
on board any aircraft or any vessel under the jurisdiction of an EU country;
to any individual inside or outside the territory of the EU who is a national of an EU country;
to any individual or body, inside or outside the EU territory, which is incorporated or constituted under the law of an EU country;
to any legal person, entity or body in respect of any business done in whole or in part within the EU.
The decision and regulation have applied since 16 October 2018.
The new regime of restrictive measures, or sanctions, was adopted by the EU on 15 October 2018 as a follow-up to the conclusions of the June 2018 European Council, which called for the adoption as soon as possible of a new EU regime of restrictive measures to address the use and proliferation of chemical weapons.
The first sanctions under the new regime were introduced in January 2019 resulting in the amendment of the decision and regulation (see ‘Related documents’).
Chemical weapons: chemical weapons as defined in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), are the following, taken together or separately:
(a) toxic chemicals and their precursors, except where intended for purposes not prohibited under this Convention, as long as the types and quantities are consistent with such purposes;
(b) munitions and devices, specifically designed to cause death or other harm through the toxic properties of those toxic chemicals specified in subparagraph (a), which would be released as a result of the employment of such munitions and devices;
(c) any equipment specifically designed for use directly in connection with the employment of munitions and devices specified in subparagraph (b).
Economic resources: assets of any kind, whether tangible or intangible, movable or immovable, which are not funds, but may be used to obtain funds, goods or services.
Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/1544 of 15 October 2018 concerning restrictive measures against the proliferation and use of chemical weapons (OJ L 259, 16.10.2018, pp. 25-30)
Successive amendments to Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/1544 have been incorporated in the original text. This consolidated version is of documentary value only.
Council Regulation (EU) 2018/1542 of 15 October 2018 concerning restrictive measures against the proliferation and use of chemical weapons (OJ L 259, 16.10.2018, pp. 12-21)
Council Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/84 of 21 January 2019 implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1542 concerning restrictive measures against the proliferation and use of chemical weapons (OJ L 18I, 21.1.2019, pp. 1-3)
Council Decision (CFSP) 2019/86 of 21 January 2019 amending Decision (CFSP) 2018/1544 concerning restrictive measures against the proliferation and use of chemical weapons (OJ L 18I, 21.1.2019, pp. 10-12)
Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union — Part Five — The Union’s external action — Title IV — Restrictive measures — Article 215 (ex Article 301 TEC) (OJ C 202, 7.6.2016, p. 144)