Safe air navigation: Contributing to a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
Agreement between the European Community, the European Space Agency and the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation on a European contribution to the development of a global navigation satellite system
Decision 98/434/EC concerning the Agreement between the European Community, the European Space Agency and the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation on a European contribution to the development of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)
The agreement creates the conditions for the European Community (now the EU), the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (Eurocontrol) to contribute to developing a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) to meet the needs of civil users independently of other means of radio navigation and positioning.
The decision approves the agreement on behalf of the EU.
Studies on navigation by satellite are evolving and have reached a sufficient degree of maturity for a European contribution to a global navigation satellite system to be created independent of other means of radio navigation and positioning, thereby allowing greater involvement of European industry in this field, including through projects such as Europe’s 2 satellite navigation systems, Galileo and EGNOS, as well as GNSS Market.
The agreement covers:
developing operational capability for a European contribution to GNSS 1*, using existing satellite systems and any appropriate augmentation of these systems;
coordination to achieve full operational capability for GNSS 1;
parallel preparatory work on GNSS 2*.
The parties agree to the following:
The ESA contributes by implementing its Advanced Research in Telecommunication Systems (ARTES) programme, in particular developing and operating the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) for testing and technical validation;
Eurocontrol determines the requirements of civil aviation ensuring that GNSS 1 is operationally acceptable;
The European Community (now the EU) helps to integrate the requirements of all users and provides for EGNOS to be set up, including leasing the AOR-E and IOR Inmarsat III geostationary transponders.
A Joint Tripartite Committee meets at least yearly to monitor implementation, formulate guidelines and coordinate common approaches to achieving the terms of the agreement. The EU is represented by the European Commission.
Each party must:
share all the necessary information at its disposal;
not disclose any exchanged information to any person other than those employed by it or officially entitled to handle such information;
not use such information for commercial purposes.
In addition, the agreement:
outlines the property rights of the three organisations, who undertake to make the necessary financial arrangements to implement the agreement;
sets up a liability mechanism for activities undertaken under the agreement;
obliges public relations activities to be coordinated between the parties, with roles clearly identified;
may only be amended by unanimous written agreement;
is open to the participation of relevant third parties.
Disputes between the parties may be:
submitted to the Joint Tripartite Committee for direct negotiation; or
settled by 5 arbitrators, 3 appointed by the parties and 2 by the committee.
Application & Background
The agreement entered into force on 18 June 1998.
European GNSS Agency (GSA) (European Global Navigation Satellite Systems Agency).
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS): a worldwide satellite-based system to determine position, velocity, and time, designed to permanently meet potential user requirements for civil applications.
European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service(EGNOS): European augmentation of existing satellite navigation and positioning systems, using geostationary satellites (i.e. satellites appearing to be stationary above a certain point on earth) with the aim of enhancing their performance in the skies over Europe and providing capability over the whole geostationary broadcast areas. EGNOS is a European component of GNSS 1.
GNSS 1: an initial implementation of GNSS, based upon the existing US and Russian military satellite navigation systems, augmented by civil systems, designed to provide the user with sufficient independent monitoring of the whole system.
GNSS 2: a worldwide civil navigation satellite system to be internationally controlled and managed, which meets the requirements of all categories of users to determine position, velocity and time.
Agreement between the European Community, the European Space Agency and the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation on a European Contribution to the development of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) (OJ L 194, 10.7.1998, pp. 16-24)
Council Decision 98/434/EC of 18 June 1998 concerning the Agreement between the European Community, the European Space Agency and the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation on a European contribution to the development of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) (OJ L 194, 10.7.1998, p. 15)
Regulation (EU) No 1285/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 on the implementation and exploitation of European satellite navigation systems and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 876/2002 and Regulation (EC) No 683/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 347, 20.12.2013, pp. 1-24)
Regulation (EU) No 912/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 setting up the European GNSS Agency, repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 1321/2004 on the establishment of structures for the management of the European satellite radio navigation programmes and amending Regulation (EC) No 683/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 276, 20.10.2010, pp. 11-21)
Successive amendments to Regulation (EU) No 912/2010 have been incorporated into the original text. This consolidated version is of documentary value only.
Galileo — access to the public regulated service
Decision No 1104/2011/EU on the rules for access to the public regulated service provided by the global navigation satellite system established under the Galileo programme
It sets out the rules for accessing the public regulated service provided by the global navigation satellite system established under the Galileo programme.
Galileo is one of the flagship programmes of the European Union (EU) space programme governed by Regulation (EU) 2021/696 (see summary).
Galileo public regulated service
Public regulated service (PRS) is 1 of 4 high-performance services provided through the Galileo programme.
It is a secure and encrypted service for sensitive applications, which must remain operational even in crisis situations when other services may be interrupted.
Access to the PRS is restricted to authorised users, mainly public authorities, such as the police, authorities responsible for border controls or authorities responsible for civil protection.
EU Member States, the Council, the European Commission and the European External Action Service have the right to unlimited and uninterrupted access to the PRS worldwide.
Each Member State, institution or service can decide for itself whether to use the PRS within their respective competences.
Non-EU countries or international organisations can participate in PRS if they reach an agreement with the EU on the security of information and a separate agreement laying down terms and conditions for access.
Member States wishing to use the PRS or manufacture PRS receivers must designate a competent PRS authority to manage and monitor final users and the manufacture of PRS receivers in accordance with common minimum standards.
The Commission can adopt delegated acts under this decision, for example, to set these common minimum standards.
An accreditation process is required for the manufacture of PRS receivers. The body manufacturing the receivers must be authorised by the Security Accreditation Board and comply with its decisions.
Competent PRS authorities must continuously monitor the compliance of the manufacturing body with the aforementioned authorisation requirement and the board’s decisions, and with specific technical requirements stemming from the common minimum standards.
Evaluation and report
Within 2 years of the PRS being declared operational, the Commission must report to the European Parliament and the Council on the adequate functioning and appropriateness of the rules established for access to the PRS and, if necessary, propose amendments to this decision.
Application & Background
It has applied since 5 November 2011.
For more information, see:
The Galileo public regulated service (European Union Agency for the Space Programme).
Decision No 1104/2011/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on the rules for access to the public regulated service provided by the global navigation satellite system established under the Galileo programme (OJ L 287, 4.11.2011, pp. 1-8)
Regulation (EU) 2021/696 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 April 2021 establishing the Union Space Programme and the European Union Agency for the Space Programme and repealing Regulations (EU) No 912/2010, (EU) No 1285/2013 and (EU) No 377/2014 and Decision No 541/2014/EU (OJ L 170, 12.5.2021, pp. 69-148)