The pilot in command of private or commercial aircraft must prior to commencement of the flight be satisfied that the flight may be safely undertaken in accordance with the proposed route and the aerodromes concerned in relation in the given weather conditions. Alternative action must be taken if the planned flight cannot be completed.
The pilot in command must be satisfied that the aircraft is airworthy and has appropriate equipment, navigational aids and instruments for the proposed flight. The aircraft must be within the weight and balance requirements. There must be an unobstructed view from the cockpit. Electrical supply must be adequate.
For a public transport flight, a flight preparation form must be completed by the pilot in command, stating that the above conditions have been met, maintenance release is in force and will continue, there are sufficient fuel and oil available, having regard to the weather conditions and an operational flight plan has been completed. The form must be maintained for three months.
The following documents must be maintained on-board the aircraft while in flight. certificate of registration, certificate of airworthiness, flight manual, cargo manifest, if cargo carried, noise certificate, radio station licence, intercept aircraft procedures.
A public transport aircraft must also have an operations manual, load sheet, technical log, journey log, maintenance release, emergency checklist, operational flight plan, air operator certificate, particulars of all safety and survival equipment.
Operators of a public transport aircraft must maintain flight and oil records up to a period of three months. The pilot may not commence the flight unless he is satisfied that there is sufficient fuel and oil to safely complete the flight including reaching an alternative aerodrome, if necessary. Reserves supply of fuel and oil must be covered with forty five-minutes flying time.
An aircraft must not commence flight, if the relevant weather conditions along the proposed route under the visual flights rules, cannot be maintained under current weather conditions. Flight may not be commenced under instrument flight, if the weather at the time of arrival are below the aerodrome’s operating minimum.
A flight may not be commenced into known or expected ice conditions, unless there is suitable equipment to deal with them.An aircraft must not operate other than in accordance with a certificate of airworthiness, its flight manual, noise certificate and in accordance with weight and performance criteria.
Aircrafts must have the requisite equipment to allow the crew to control its flightpath, undertake procedural manoeuvres and operate within the aircraft’s permitted limitations.
The minimum instruments, equipment and devices are specified. They include altimeter, compass, airspeed indicators, fire extinguishers, flight manual, first aid kits, current maps, accurate timepieces, information on the rules of the air and procedures, listing of ground signals. Aircraft must have specified communication and navigation instrument.
The pilot in command must not commence a flight, unless there is sufficient fuel to complete the flight safety, taking account of meteorological conditions. There must be sufficient fuel to reach any alternative aerodrome provided for in the flight plan. There must also be an additional 45 minutes reserve of oil and fuel. The fuel and oil quantities must take account of contingencies in terms of weather, routing delays, missing landings and loss of pressurisation. An aircraft must report any hazardous flight conditions observed.
Aircraft must be fitted with the instruments to allow the crew to control the flight path, undertake manoeuvres and monitor the limitations of the aircraft.
Minimum instruments, equipment and safety equipment and navigation equipment, must be on-board. Communications equipment and navigation equipment include communication with aerodrome tower, ability to receive weather information, maintain two-way communications during flight and ability to conduct two-way communications on an aeronautical frequency.
An aircraft under instrument flight rules or visual flight rules with no visual landmarks for 60 nautical miles or more must have navigation equipment appropriate to the flight plan and route for air traffic control requirements and to continue flight if equipment fails.
Seats for every occupant over three years must have a seat belt or and/or a harness. A public transport operator must appoint a pilot in command for each flight. It must ensure all operations personnel are properly trained and know their duties.
Records must be kept for each crew member for 12 months including flight time, roasters, duties and rest period, including cosmic radiations above 49,000 feet.
Passengers must be made familiar with safety belts, life jackets, emergency exits, emergency oxygen equipment for flight above 25,000 square feet, must be demonstrated;
- ensure passengers have their seat belts fastened during takeoff, landing and in turbulent conditions,
- ensure in the event of an emergency, passengers are instructed on an emergency actions
- do light checklists encompassing normal and emergency procedures in compliance with the operations and flight manual.
A public transport undertaking operator must ensure the all crew members abide by the law of the state over which they travel and ae be familiar with their duties and obligations.
Prior to flight, the operator must ascertain that the relevant ground facilities are adequate for the operations. If they are found inadequate, they must be reported to the relevant authority responsible for the facility.
A public transport operator must have an approved mechanism of supervision of flight operations. A flight operations officer should be appointed for this purpose. The operator must have knowledge and be familiar with the running of the flight department.
The operation officer’s duties include
- providing information and assisting the pilot in command in preparation for flight,
- assisting and completing operational flight plan
- filing the air traffic controller flight plan,
- supplying the pilot in command with suitable means of information necessary for the safe operation of the aircraft.
A public transport operator must assign duties and responsibilities to crew members for standard and emergency procedures. Crew members must meet the standards set by the operator and approved by the Authority. Two pilots are required for aircraft with more than 10 passengers.
Aircraft must not be permitted to fly unless they have the appropriate number of duly trained and accredited flight crew. Crew member’s licences must be valid, and their ongoing competency must be ensured.
A public transport operator must have ground and flight training program to ensure that all crew members are properly trained. It must cover the aircraft type, normal and emergency procedures. Training must be repeated on a regular basis for the relevant type of aircraft. It must maintain records of qualifications of pilots and details of their training with respect to the aircraft type and routes concerned.
A pilot in command of a public transport aircraft may not fly a route he is not previously qualified on, unless he can demonstrate to the operator that he has adequate knowledge of the route including safe altitudes, meteorological issues, navigational procedures, details of aerodromes on the route and procedures over densely populated areas.
Generally, the pilot must have made approaches into the aerodrome accompanied by a pilot qualified for that aerodrome, unless the particular aerodrome qualifies as not presenting obstacles or challenges due to its nature. An operator may not use a pilot who has not flown the route within the previous year.
Flight recorders recording flight data must be retained for at least one day after operation. Voice recordings must also be retained until after operations. A journey logbook must be maintained for all public transport aircraft to be maintained for six months. It is to give details of flight, airplane, crew members, points of departures and arrivals and flight time.
Records of cosmic radiation dosages must be recorded in respect of flights flying at more than 49,000 feet. An operational flight plan must be completed for public transport flights to show that it can be safely completed. It must be approved by a pilot in command and a flight operations officer prior to flight, if applicable. A copy must be left with the operator.