Governance of the Energy Union

Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union

It aims to ensure that the EU’s Energy Union Strategy is implemented in a coordinated and coherent manner across its 5 dimensions.
More broadly, it also aims to ensure that the Energy Union achieves its objectives, in particular the targets of the 2030 policy framework for climate and energy and of the Paris Agreement on climate change.
It repeals Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 on the monitoring and reporting mechanism for greenhouse gas emissions.

Key Points

The Energy Union strategy has 5 dimensions:

energy security;
internal energy market;
energy efficiency;
research, innovation and competitiveness.

The regulation has a number of key features:

it requires EU countries to produce a national integrated energy and climate plan for the period 2021 to 2030 by 1 January 2019, and then every 10 years for the following 10-year periods;
it establishes a consultation process between the European Commission and EU countries, and regional cooperation between EU countries, before the plans are finalised, and then every 10 years for the following 10-year periods. For the period to 2030, the plans need to be updated by 30 June 2024;
it requires EU countries to prepare and report to the Commission long-term low-emission strategies with a 50-year perspective, in view of contributing to broader sustainable development goals and the long-term goal set by the Paris Agreement;
it requires EU countries to produce biennial progress reports on the implementation of the plans from 2021 onwards across the 5 dimensions of the Energy Union, to track progress;
it requires the Commission to monitor and assess EU countries’ progress towards the targets, objectives and contributions set in their national plans;
it sets out the requirements for national and EU inventory systems for greenhouse gas emissions, policies, measures and projections.

Application & Background

It has applied since 24 December 2018.


Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action, amending Regulations (EC) No 663/2009 and (EC) No 715/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Directives 94/22/EC, 98/70/EC, 2009/31/EC, 2009/73/EC, 2010/31/EU, 2012/27/EU and 2013/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, Council Directives 2009/119/EC and (EU) 2015/652 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 328, 21.12.2018, pp. 1-77)


Council Decision (EU) 2016/1841 of 5 October 2016 on the conclusion, on behalf of the European Union, of the Paris Agreement adopted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (OJ L 282, 19.10.2016, pp. 1-3)

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: A policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 to 2030 (COM(2014) 15 final/2, 28.1.2014)

Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2013 on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information at national and Union level relevant to climate change and repealing Decision No 280/2004/EC (OJ L 165, 18.6.2013, pp. 13-40)

Successive amendments to Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 have been incorporated into the original document. This consolidated version is of documentary value only.

The EU’s environment agency – environmental information and monitoring

Regulation (EC) No 401/2009 – the European Environment Agency and the European Environment Information and Observation Network

Regulation (EC) No 401/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the European Environment Agency and the European Environment Information and Observation Network

The regulation describes the aims and objectives of the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the European Environment Information and Observation Network (EIONET). This enables them to provide information in support of the formulation of EU environmental policy.

Key Points

The EEA is an EU agency whose objective is to protect and improve the environment and support sustainable development. It does this by providing objective, reliable and comparable information so that:

—measures are taken to protect the environment;
—the results of such measures are assessed;
—the public is kept informed about the state of the environment;
—EU countries have the necessary technical and scientific support.

It has the following principal tasks:

—to collect, process and analyse data to provide the EU with the objective information necessary for effective environmental policies;
—to assist the monitoring of environmental measures;
—to collate, assess and disseminate data on the state of the environment to the general public;
—to ensure that data are comparable Europe-wide;
—to promote the incorporation of EU data into international monitoring programmes such as those of the United Nations;
—to stimulate the development of methods of assessing the cost of damage to the environment and the costs of preventive, protection and restoration policies;
—to stimulate the exchange of information on the best technologies available for preventing or reducing damage to the environment;
—to publish a report on the state of, trends in and prospects for the environment every 5 years.

The data covered include:

—air quality and noise pollution;
—water quality;
—the state of the soil and of fauna and flora;
—land use and natural resources;
—waste management
—chemical substances;
—coastal and marine protection;
—climate change and adaptation to climate change.

The EEA Board includes 1 representative from each of its member countries, 2 from the European Commission and 2 scientific experts appointed by the European Parliament. An Executive Director is responsible for day-to-day management.

The EEA cooperates with other EU and international bodies, such as the EU’s statistical office (Eurostat) and the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Health Organisation.

EIONET, coordinated by the EEA, is the EU’s information network on environmental issues. It has representation from all EU countries, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey.

Application & Background

As of 10 June 2009.

European Environment Agency website.



Entry into force

Deadline for transposition in the Member States

Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 401/2009


-OJ L 126, 21.5.2009, pp. 13-22


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