Electric and gas-powered vehicles — recharging/refuelling stations

Directive 2014/94/EU — deploying the EU’s alternative fuels infrastructure

It establishes standard rules on rolling out the EU’s alternative fuels* infrastructure (i.e. electric car recharging stations or natural gas refuelling points) in the different EU countries.

It lays down minimum requirements for building up this infrastructure, to be implemented as part of every EU country’s national policy framework.

Key Points

EU countries must adopt national policies that aim to develop the market for alternative transport fuels and the infrastructure to support them. In drawing up these policies, EU countries must:

— make an assessment of the current state of the market and prospects for future development;
— set national targets for deploying the infrastructure and the measures necessary to meet them;
— designate networks for this infrastructure.

Key dates

Countries must provide the following, by the following dates.

— 2020 — sufficient recharging stations to allow electric cars to travel around densely populated areas within the network the country has determined.
— 2025 (end) — sufficient recharging stations for hydrogen (for any country that decides to include hydrogen in its national policy framework).
— 2025 (end) — sufficient liquefied natural gas (LNG) stations at seaports, to accommodate LNG-powered ships.


EU countries are required to submit a progress report to the European Commission on the implementation of their national frameworks by 2019, and every 3 years after that.


See also:

— Alternative fuels
— Roadmap on resource-efficient transport (2011)
— Directive 2009/28/EC (target of 10 % market share for renewables in transport fuels)


Alternative fuels means fuels or power sources that serve, at least partly, as a substitute for fossil oil sources. Examples include electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, compressed natural gas (CNG), LNG, or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).


Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure


Entry into force

Deadline for transposition in the Member States

Official Journal

Directive 2014/94/EU



OJ L 307, 28.10.2014, pp. 1-20

Public-private partnership for hydrogen and fuel cells

The fuel cells and hydrogen 2 joint undertaking (FCH 2 JU) implements a public-private partnership (PPP) involving the European Commission, the fuel cell and hydrogen industry (represented by the NEW Industry Grouping) and the research community (represented by Research Grouping N.ERGHY). Its aim is to accelerate the development and deployment of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies.


Council Regulation (EU) No 559/2014 of 6 May 2014 establishing the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking.


The FCH 2 JU seeks to deploy the benefits of fuel cells, an efficient conversion technology (i.e. it converts a fuel source into power) and of hydrogen, a clean energy carrier, to help address the energy challenges faced in Europe. Potentially, fuel cells and hydrogen can offer a number of advantages such as:

— allowing renewable energy technology to be applied to transport;
— facilitating distributed (i.e. small-scale) power generation; and
— addressing the intermittent nature of renewables, such as wind power.

Harnessing their use should help fight carbon emissions, reduce dependence on mainly imported hydrocarbons and contribute to growth and jobs.

After a successful first generation that saw some early applications brought to market, FCH 2 JU is looking to accelerate the commercial deployment of hydrogen-based energy and transport solutions across Europe. FCH 2 JU is established for a period up to 31 December 2024.

This phase will involve improving the performance and reducing the cost of products, as well as demonstrating on a wider scale the readiness of the technology for transport (cars, buses and refuelling infrastructure) and energy (hydrogen production and distribution, energy storage and stationary power generation).


The FCH 2 JU is a legal entity established in line with Article 187v of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (which allows for PPPs at EU level in the field of industrial research).The JU sets its own strategic research agenda and funds projects selected following calls for proposals published on the FCH 2 JU’s website. The JU applies the Horizon 2020 rules for participation.

The JU is managed by an Executive Director who is supported by the staff of the Programme Office. The JU has a governing board comprising industry and European Commission representatives. It has overall responsibility for the operations of the JU and oversees the implementation of its activities. It is advised by a Scientific Committee on scientific priorities. There is also a states representatives group representing the countries involved and a stakeholder forum. Decisions are taken in accordance with the voting rules established by the JU.

Article 209 of the EU’s Financial Regulation (Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 966/2012) provides for new lighter rules customised for EU PPP bodies.


The EU’s (including EFTA’s) financial contribution to the FCH 2 JU to cover administrative costs and operational costs is up to EUR 665 million matched by a similar amount from participants. The JU also seeks to develop synergies with the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF).



Entry into force

Deadline for transposition in the Member States

Official Journal

Regulation No (EU) 559/2014


OJ L 169 of 7.6.2014, pp. 108-129.


Regulation (EU) No 1291/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 establishing Horizon 2020 – the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (2014-20) and repealing Decision No 1982/2006/EC (Official Journal L 347, 20.12.2013, pp. 104-173).


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