Non-road mobile machinery: gaseous pollutants

In order to reduce air pollution caused by the engines of non-road mobile machinery, the Directive specifies, at Community level, acceptable emission standards for these engines and certification procedures with respect to these standards.

Directive 97/68/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 1997 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to measures against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from internal combustion engines to be installed in non-road mobile machinery


The purpose of this Directive is to approximate the laws of the Member States with regard to:

  • emission standards;
  • type-approval procedures for engines intended to be fitted to non-road mobile machinery.

For the purposes of the Directive:

  • “non-road mobile machinery” means any mobile machine, transportable industrial equipment or vehicle with or without bodywork that is not intended to be used to carry goods or passengers on the road, in which an internal combustion engine as specified in Annex I, Section 1 is installed, for example excavators and other construction equipment. This definition to cover locomotives and inland waterway vessels has been extended by Directive 2004/26/EC(see below);
  • “type approval” means the procedure whereby a Member State certifies that an internal combustion engine type or engine family meets the relevant technical requirements of the Directive with regard to its level of emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants;
  • “engine type” means a category of engines which do not differ in such essential engine characteristics as specified in Annex II, Appendix 1);
  • “engine family” means a manufacturer’s range of engines which, as a result of their design, are expected to have similar exhaust-emission characteristics and which comply with the requirements of the Directive.

This Directive applies to compression ignition engines (diesel) and to positive-ignition engines (petrol) which are used in non-road mobile machinery, including locomotives and inland navigation vessels.

Type-approval procedure for engine types or families

  • any application for type approval must be submitted by the manufacturer to the approval authority in a Member State. The application should be accompanied by a manufacturer’s information folder (cf. Annex II) [no application in respect of one engine type or engine family may be submitted to more than one Member State (Article 3)];
  • the Member State receiving the application must grant type approval to all engine types or engine families which conform to the particulars in the information folder and which meet the requirements of Directive 97/68/EC;
  • an approval certificate must be issued for each engine type or family that has been approved;
  • each month, the competent authorities in each Member State must send to their counterparts in the other Member States a list of the type approvals by type or family of engine which they have granted, refused or withdrawn during the month in question (Article 4);
  • any request for amendment or extension of a type approval is to be submitted exclusively to the Member State which carried out the original type approval (Article 5).

The manufacturer must affix the following marks to each unit manufactured:

  • the trade name or name of the engine’s manufacturer;
  • the engine type and family, together with an individual engine identification number;
  • the type approval number.

Member States may not refuse the registration or placing on the market of new engines which meet the requirements of the Directive (Article 8).

Since 30 June 1998 Member States may not refuse to type approve an engine type or family, and may not impose additional approval requirements relating to pollutant emissions if the engine in question meets the conditions laid down in the Directive (Article 9).

The provisions of Article 8 and 9 do not apply:

  • to engines used by the armed forces;
  • to engines taken from stocks of end-of-line engines or non-road mobile machinery covered by an exemption under Article 10(2).

Member States are required to provide the Commission with a list of the exemptions granted and the reasons given.

Member States must guarantee that conformity of production is checked effectively before type approval is granted (Article 11).

Engines not meeting the conditions set out in the approval certificate are considered not to conform to the type or family that has been approved. The Member State conducting type approval must take any action needed to ensure that engines in production conform.

The names and addresses of the type approval authorities and of the testing services responsible for matters arising from Directive 97/68/EC must be sent to the Commission and to the other Member States (Article 16).


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 97/68/EC 19.03.1998 30.06.1998 OJ L 59 of 27.02.1998


Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2001/63/EC 12.09.2001 30.06.2002 OJ L 227 of 23.08.2001
Directive 2002/88/EC 11.02.2003 11.08.2004 OJ L 35 of 11.02.2003
Directive 2004/26/EC 20.05.2004 30.04.2005 OJ L 146 of 30.04.2004
Directive 2006/105/EC 1.1.2007 1.1.2007 OJ L 363 of 20.12.2006
Regulation (EC) No 596/2009 7.8.2009 OJ L 188 of 18.7.2009
Directive 2010/26/EU 1.4.2010 31.3.2011 OJ L 86 of 1.4.2010

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 97/68/EC have been incorporated in the original text. This consolidated version is of documentary value only.

Wheeled agricultural or forestry tractors: pollutant gases

In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution caused by agricultural or forestry tractor engines, the European Union is laying down standards for acceptable emissions that apply to those engines

Directive 2000/25/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2000 on action to be taken against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants by engines intended to power agricultural or forestry tractors and amending Council Directive 74/150/EEC


The approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to action to be taken against air pollution by agricultural or forestry tractors aims to reduce the level of pollutant emissions and ensure the smooth functioning of the internal market.

This Directive deals with the requirements concerning emissions by agricultural and forestry tractors. They concern, in particular, the definition of the component type-approval procedures applying to engines intended to be fitted to tractors and thus also the definition of the type-approval procedures for such vehicles in terms of their pollutant emissions.

The Directive has the same test requirements as have been adopted for off-road mobile machinery and the corresponding limit values for levels of emissions.

At the same time, the Directive comes within the field of the type-approval procedure for agricultural or forestry tractors put in place by Framework Directive 74/150/EEC, which was subsequently repealed and replaced by Directive 2003/37/EC.

As it draws a distinction between four chemical pollutants – carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulates (PT) – the Directive supplements Directive 77/537/EEC on action to be taken against pollutants emitted by diesel engines intended to power tractors. This Directive, which is also based on Framework Directive 74/150/EEC, was solely related to exhaust-gas opacity.

As of 30 September 2000, if the pollutants emitted by those engines or the engines fitted to those tractors meet the requirements of this Directive, Member States may not:

  • refuse to grant EC type-approval or national type-approval in respect of an engine type or family;
  • prohibit the sale, entry into service or use of a new engine;
  • refuse to grant EC type-approval or national type-approval of tractor types;
  • prohibit the use, the sale or the initial entry into service of tractor types.

In terms of the timetable for implementation, specific deadlines have been included for all categories of engines in order to give manufacturers greater flexibility.


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2000/25/EC 12.07.2000 31.12.2000 OJ L 173 of 12.07.2000


Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2005/13/EC 21.03.2005 31.12.2005 OJ L 055 of 01.03.2005
Directive 2006/96/EC 1.1.2007 OJ L 363 of 20.12.2006



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